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It is a diploid species (2n=2x=32) with a large genome size of 2.15 Gb nucleotide pairs [1]. The exocarp, or the epidermis, is about 0.1 mm thick covering the fibrous mesocarp, or coir, which is about 1–5 cm thick at the circumference (see Plate III b and c). Coconuts in various stages of maturity on a tree. The dwarf cultivars are usually grown for young coconut including ‘Nam Hom’ (Thailand), ‘Yellow- Malayan’ (Malaysia, Ivory Coast), ‘Tembili’ or ‘King Coconut’ (Sri Lanka) etc. Coconut palms are distributed widely around the world throughout all of the tropical regions. In the Hawaiian Islands, the coconut is regarded as a Polynesian introduction, first brought to the islands by early Polynesian voyagers from their homelands in Oceania. The tall cultivars are usually grown for mature coconut, comprising ‘Bali’ (Indonesia), ‘Laguna’ (Philippines), ‘Tahiti’ (Tahiti), ‘West African Tall’ (Ivory Coast), etc. 95. Again, the Netherlands, a nonproducing country, is a significant reexporter of coconut products and is among the country with the fastest export growth rate, along with Hong Kong (Fig. The juice of the fruit, better known as coconut water, has been reported to contain similar electrolytes as the human body, and therefore has potential applications as a sport drink for athletes and for active people. They have been found in the Caribbean and the Atlantic coasts of Africa and South America for less than 500 years (the Caribbean native inhabitants do not have a dialect term for them, but use the Portuguese name), but evidence of their presence on the Pacific coast of South America antedates Christopher Columbus’s arrival in the Americas. Coconut flesh is high in fat and can be dried or eaten fresh. B.A. The familiar hard shell of the coconut is the endocarp, or inner layer, of the mature ovary of the fruit, and within the shell is the actual seed, covered with a thin brown seed coat. 2014 Trade Data on desiccated coconut exports globally. Coconut (Cocos nucifera) and palm oils enriched in medium-chain fatty acids, such as lauric acid (12:0), are used a feedstocks in the preparation of detergents (Shukla and Blicher-Mathiesen, 1993). In the Caribbean, the total production of coconuts averaged just under 75,000 tons, coconuts being the second most produced commodity after sugarcane in Jamaica, which averages about 240,000 tons (FAOSTAT, 2014). Leaf stalks 1 … The oldest known land plants in the fossil record are Ordovician to Silurian. 99. Coconut is the “tree of life” as it plays a vital role, in addition to giving food, drink and shelter, in the economies of many small island countries in the Caribbean, Indian, and Pacific Oceans. Pollen shedding overlaps with the opening of the female flowers. This has led to a rapid expansion in the demand for the product, even though desiccated coconut still remains the largest form of the product in global trade (Fig. Cocos Nucifera has extremely high economic value and is known as a "treasure tree". Het is de enige soort in het geslacht Cocos, een zogeheten monotypisch geslacht. Farmers generally harvest the nut when it is about 9-months old when the jelly is less than 0.5-cm thick, soft and translucent; beyond 9 months, the jelly hardens and the volume of juice (water) begins to decrease. The tiny embryo is about the size of a pea seed under the soft eye (Cutter et al., 1952; Child, 1974; Janick and Paull, 2008). Figure 7.7. Put the nut on a solid underground and hit it firmly on its side. Grown in more than 80 countries, it is a life-sustaining species in fragile coastal and island ecosystems. Het endocarp van de vrucht, met de kiemopeningen, lijkt op het gezicht van een aap, die in het Portugees There are only single, or a few, female flowers on a branch close to the base and many smaller male flowers above. The top five coconut producing countries were Indonesia as the major producer (18 million tons), followed by the Philippines (15 million tons), India (11 million tons), Brazil (4 million tons), and Sri Lanka (2 million tons). In terms of value of exports, countries from the far east remain among the largest exporters with Indonesia, Thailand, India, and Vietnam accounting for over US $200 million in exports in 2014 (Fig. Coconut is one of the few major crop species that has no closely related wild relatives. They have smaller kernels but produce more bunches per year, and are more resistant to lethal yellowing disease caused by a phytoplasma as compared to the tall cultivars (Ohler, 1984; de Taffin, 1998). Description Additional information Reviews (0) This product contains differentdifferent ages and forms will allow you to cover all stages of growth making it a complete production solution. The seed is edible - eaten raw, used in cooked dishes, or dried then shredded as flavouring. Cocos nucifera quantity. McVetty, ... Randall J. Weselake, in, Coconut Biodiversity – Nature’s Gift to the Tropical Islands, Biodiversity and Climate Change Adaptation in Tropical Islands, J. Siriphanich, ... S. Tongchitpakdee, in, Postharvest Biology and Technology of Tropical and Subtropical Fruits: Cocona to Mango, Case study: application of appropriate technologies to improve the quality and safety of coconut water, Food Safety and Quality Systems in Developing Countries, Encyclopedia of Human Nutrition (Third Edition). The coconut fruit is botanically classified as a monospermic drupe; a single embryo is FREE Shipping. When the spathe is fully grown, the entire structure, collectively called “spadix,” is about 1–1.2 m in length and 14–16 cm in diameter. The dwarf variety bears fruit 1–2 years earlier, but gains a height of less than half that of the tall variety. ... Every part of the tree was used, in ways too many to list, and it may have played an indispensable role in early man's ability to survive in the tropics. In addition to the many other uses to which both the tree and the fruit can be put, the major and growing demand for coconut comes from the use of the juice within the fruit for drinking. Coconut, fruit of the coconut palm (Cocos nucifera), a tree of the palm family (Arecaceae). The other is a soft eye having the embryo located underneath. Where do coconuts come from? This part yields copra oil and an opalescent liquid coconut water, and fills three quarters of the large central cavity. 7.4A), although a growing number of processors are finding various ways to extend the shelf life and make the product more shelf stable (Fig. Fruits from dwarf cultivars are commonly smaller than fruits from tall cultivars. It readily establishes itself on sandy beaches upon being washed ashore. In 2013, Indonesia, Vietnam, India, Malaysia, and Thailand were the major coconut exporting countries in the world, with exports ranging from 50,000 to 230,000 tons. Humans have also played a major role in dispersal, because of its ability to provide many different resources such as food and water. The term coconut can refer to the whole coconut palm or the seed, or the fruit, which, botanically, is a drupe, not a nut. The scientific community is divided. Last updated: 29 Nov 202029 Nov 2020 It has generally been accepted that the coconut originated in the Indian–Indonesia region and float-distributed itself around the world by riding ocean currents. According to the Rules of ICBN the names of the families should end in -aceae. Climatic and nutritional conditions during the flowering stage affect the relationship between the number of female flowers and ripe fruits obtained, or the fruit set rate. Currently, coconut palm is cultivated in 93 countries, including Central and South America, East and West Africa, Southeast Asia and the Pacific Islands, with … There is a dwarf variety. (January 2016) Plants are multicellular, photosynthesizing eucaryotes. Coconuts probably originated somewhere in Indo-Malaya and are one of the most important crops of the tropics. Figure 7.3. Theobroma Cacao Coco Nucifera Seed Butter Goat Milk Soap Artisanal Goats Barware Essential Oils Organic Farming. Coconut ‘milk,’ which is found in the unripe nut and is drunk or used in cooking, is the liquid form of the endosperm, which solidifies as the fruit ripens. Coconuts, cocos nucifera on tree - download this royalty free Stock Photo in seconds. Generally there are about 50 female flowers but thousands of male flowers per inflorescence. Desiccated coconut is in high demand the world over, with more than US $800 million in global exports led by the Philippines, with Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam showing significant export growth in the last few years (Fig. Cocos Nucifera is a low maintenance palm in that it is self pruning. Figure 7.2. SKU: N/A Categories: Collections, Palms, Shrubs Tags: 3dtree, coconut, Cocos nucifera, palm tree. Figure 7.6. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. A mature fruit is about 1–2 kg in weight, a significant reduction from 3–4 kg at its maximum weight at around 9 months, 15–20 cm in diameter and 20–30 cm long, with a variation of fruit shapes, from round to elongated but mostly ovoid to oblong and triangular fruit (see Plate III a in the colour section between pages 274 and 275). Oceania also had higher growth rates in production and yield levels than all other regions, while Africa had the greatest growth rate in the area of coconuts harvested than that for Asia and the Americas (Fig. It is also called ‘The tree of wealth’ or ‘The tree of life’ in other parts of the world. In a year a coconut tree generally produces 12–20 inflorescences. Introduction The coconut (Cocos nucifera) is a monotypic genus of palm tree cultivated primarily for its large edible nut. It is known as the tree of life for all of its plant parts has a wide range of uses. The tree is unparalleled in utilisation of its each and every part for some economic purpose or other. The cross section of the fruit from the outer to the inner layer shows a smooth, waxy diversely colored yellow, orange, green, brown or reddish-brown epidermis, a fibrous mesocarp or husk, and a ligneous, blackish and very hard endocarp. The tall cultivars are slower to first flowering and are cross-pollinated. Coconut genomics work is of recent origin, with research done on cloning of copia-like element [6] in 1992, acyl transferase gene [7] in 1995, and RAPD marker-aided diversity assessment in coconut germplasm of the Pacific Islands [8] in 1997. This includes several economically important plants such as Cocos nucifera (coconut), Elaeis guineensis (African oil palm), Attalea cohune (babacu), Arecanut (Areca catechu) and Bactris gasipaes (peach palm). Fruit development from anthesis to maturity takes approximately 12 months, varying with coconut type and cultivar. One of the most important plants of great economic importance. The word nucifera is … This limitation was partially overcome in a follow-up study where a coconut LPAAT exhibiting enhanced preference for lauryl-CoA, was coexpressed in developing B. napus seed with the California bay laurel acyl-ACP thioesterase (Knutzon et al., 1999). Cocos nucifera is an unbranched monoecious plant of the PALMAE family. People in more than 93 countries thrive on coconut cultivation and related industries. Its uses are so numerous and, as every part of the coconut palm is of some use, the coconut palm has been described as ‘one of Nature's greatest gifts to man’ (Burkill, 1966). The fruits of the palm mature in 12 months. The root system of coconut is fibrous. It growsto 30 m tall, with a crown of 25–35 paripinnate leaves, producing 12–16 new leaves per year. Download this free picture about Coconut Cocos Nucifera Tree from Pixabay's vast library of public domain images and videos. Coconuts are grown in 80 countries: in the Asia–Pacific region, the east and west coasts of Africa and Central and South America. Gray, in Encyclopedia of Human Nutrition (Third Edition), 2013. The liquid of the nut is used in beverages. The trees are tall, reaching up to 30 m in height, with a slender, often curved trunk. 7.7B). 4.2 out of 5 stars 3. Indonesia, Philippines, India, and Sri Lanka are the major coconut-producing countries. It has been commonly planted in frost free tropical areas throughout the world in a variety of conspicuous locations including coastal areas, beaches, parks, along streets, residential yards, near commercial buildings/hotels, and on golf courses. 4.2 out of 5 stars 3. It is a perennial multipurpose palm with great importance in sustaining the life of the people who grow them for … These high yielding precocious hybrid selections will grow outside of the tropics, in a warm and sheltered position. ), lepidopterans, Setora nitens (Walker) and Zeuxippa catoxantha (Hampson), and the diaspidid, Aspidiotus destructor Signoret. The coconut (Cocos nucifera) grows on the coconut palm, which is common in tropical areas throughout the world. The water in the fruit is also fermented to produce vinegar and wine and the dried flesh of the fruit, when ground and squeezed, provides “coconut milk” which is used in a variety of traditional culinary applications, the remaining ground coconut being used for a range of sweet delicacies, including macaroons. $16.80 shipping. It is claimed that they evolved to disperse significant distances via marine currents. 7.4B). The inflorescence bears 30–35 flower-bearing spikelets densely set with male flowers. Coconut (Cocos nucifera; Arecaceae) is widely distributed in tropical regions of the world, ranging between 20° N and 20° S latitude. Jerard, ... T.P. The male flowers number about 250–300 per spikelet. Yellow & Green Coconut Pack @ cocos nucifera Exotic Palm Tree Seed 2 Live Seeds. ©2004-2020 Universal Taxonomic Services. The size of the de-husked nut is about 10 cm in diameter and it weighs about 0.5 kg on average (Child, 1974; Grimwood, 1975; Ohler, 1984). Abstract. 7.3). Laguna Tall coconut fruits from the Philippines. Coconut, cocus nucifera, is a monoecious large palm of about 30 m tall with long pinnate leaves that break away cleanly leaving the unbranched trunk smooth. McVetty, ... Randall J. Weselake, in Industrial Oil Crops, 2016. Female flowers which develop normally become very large, ranging from 0.5 to more than 2.5 kg. Top 5 exporting (A) and importing (B) countries for coconuts. 7.7A). The coconut has spread across much of the tropics, probably aided in many cases by seafaring people. They are now almost ubiquitous between 26°N and 26°S except for the interiors of Africa and South America. The female flowers are found at the base of the spikelet, and each spikelet may carry one or a few female flowers (Banzon and Velasco, 1982). The tree produces fruits (Fig. Coconut, Cocos nucifera Linnaeus, (family Palmae) is a pantropical plant whose centre of origin is uncertain. Leaf emergence to shedding takes about 2.5–3 years. Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is known as ‘Kalpa Vriksha’ in the ancient Indian literatures, which means ‘tree that provides all the necessities of life’. These are the “tall” and “dwarf” coconut trees. The native origin of the palm is uncertain, as the nuts were easily dispersed between both islands and continents by ocean currents and by early explorers. The inflorescence develops within a strong, tough pointed double sheath called spathe. 7.6A–B, respectively. An adult palm usually carries 30–40 paripinnate leaves in its crown. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781893997981000099, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B0122270509002064, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1572437997801005, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123877369000029, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781893997981000051, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128130643000065, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781845697358500024, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128012260000074, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123750839002087, PRODUCTION SYSTEMS AND AGRONOMY | Oil Palm and Coconut, Soft Scale Insects their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control, Peter B.E. Meat about 1–2 cm thick used for the treatment of various health problems in all palm-growing countries of the by... 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Photo in seconds introduced to the base and many smaller male flowers ( Ohler, 1984.. Coconut Cocos nucifera ), which is characteristically unbranched spread across much of the palm ’ s life span Elsevier! Wide range of uses multipurpose perennial crop of the families should end in -aceae which is unbranched. Very large, ranging from 0.5 to more than 80 countries: in Indian–Indonesia. Tailor content and ads the crop, up to 30 m tall, reaching up 30! And attains a height of about 2–4 years in the Indian–Indonesia region and float-distributed itself around world...

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