black cottonwood bark description

Logs must be manufactured and delivered very soon after trees are felled. It will make a stunning dining table, countertop, bar top, or anything else your creativity dictates! 1989. Refe… BASSMAN, J.H., and J.C. ZWIER. In late succession, black cottonwood stands typically succeed to conifer forests [2,5,8,18,26,28,32,37,39]. Ecological Role Black cottonwood is a pioneer species specifically adapted to colonizing and dominating areas disturbed by floodwaters. Black cottonwood is one of the least durable species when placed in contact with the soil or exposed to the weather. HANLEY, and R.W. Heartwood is classed as moderately difficult to penetrate with wood preservatives. https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/tree/popbalt/all.html Species Range. Leaves are deciduous, alternate, simple, ovate-lanceolate to deltate but variable in size and shape on same tree. Cottonwoods have a high tendency to warp during drying because of tension wood and wet pockets. The bark is rough and dark-colored, thus “black cottonwood”. CARKNER. It will take bark from two to three years to loosen on a dead tree. After logging operations, it sometimes regenerates naturally from rooting of partially buried fragments of branches or from stumps. Post. The Great Alaska Nature Factbook. Description: This tree is 50-100' tall at maturity, forming a single trunk 1½-3' across and an ovoid to oblongoid crown that becomes relatively open with age. These shoots drop to the ground and may root where they fall or may be dispersed by water transport. These are native trees up to 30-60 m tall, usually with a straight, branch-free trunk for more than half its length, forming a broad, open crown in open sites; bark gray to gray-brown on mature trees, deeply furrowed into flat ridges on older portions. The sequencing was performed at the Joint Genome Institute using the shotgun method. This is because cottonwood absorbs the adhesive more readily than other hardwoods. The black cottonwood tree is the largest deciduous tree in the Northwest. Black cottonwood is an important stabilizer of riverbanks. So, instead we've taken it a step further to see if you will be able to correctly guess the name of the tree from just a single picture of its bark! Bark is thick, grayish brown, shallowly furrowed, and shaggy. USDA Forest Service, Washington D.C. Agriculture Handbook 654. Cottonwood (Poplar) The cottonwood—also known as the poplar—is a tall tree with a spreading crown, named for its cotton-like seeds. Populus balsamifera ssp. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology 15:175-181. Typical spacings for pulpwood rotations are 6 X 6 ft to 7 X 10 ft, which accommodate tractors. The bark of cottonwood trees is very suitable for carvings and is valuable for artisans. Considering the economic importance of wood and wood products, the availability[12] of a tree genome was necessary. The diverse poplar family includes the quaking aspen, which boasts the widest range of any North American tree, and the Plains cottonwood, which was the only tree many early settlers met as they forged westward through America's prairies. Decay fungi are common; two species are noted for significant damage in British Columbia, Spongipellis delectans and Pholiota destruens. of soils from moist silts, gravels, and sands to rich humus, loams, and occasionally clays. The wide range of topics studied by using P. trichocarpa include the effects of ethylene, lignin biosynthesis, drought tolerance, and wood formation. Seral communities dominated or codominated by cottonwood are maintained by periodic flooding or The seedlings and saplings are usually killed regardless of fire severity because of thin bark and shallow roots , and all trees may be killed or top-killed by high-severity fire P. trichocarpa seedlings do not usually become established in abundance after logging unless special measures are taken to prepare the bare, moist seedbeds required for initial establishment. Black cottonwood has been successfully sawn into lumber and peeled for veneer. Hibbs. As such we shall now learn a few interesting facts about eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides), Fremont’s cottonwood (Populus fremontii), and black poplar (Populus nigra). Voles and mice cause serious losses on grassy or herbaceous sites. The black poplar is a medium- to large-sized deciduous tree, reaching 20–30 m, and rarely 40 m tall.Normally, their trunks achieve up to 1.5 m in diameter, but some unusual individual trees in France have grown old enough to have much larger trunks – more than 3 meters DBH. Effect of partial defoliation on growth and carbon exchange of two clones of young Populus trichocarpa Torr. It is then possible to remove bark that is up to 6 inches thick. Female catkins 8–15 cm long; stigmas 3. The bark of Black Poplar is gray-brown in color. P. trichocarpa has an extensive and aggressive root system, which can invade and damage drainage systems. The leaf buds are large, pointed and exude a sticky sweet-scented resin. Both types are solid and thick. It was difficult to locate good bark at a fair price, so instead of trying to make due with low quality bark I decided I would get my own. Black Cottonwoods are one of the most massive broad-leafed trees on the continent. The sequence of P. trichocarpa is that of an individual female specimen "Nisqually-1", named after the Nisqually River in Washington in the United States, where the specimen was collected. Growth Rate: 36 Inches per Year. Fire damage to trunks varied from "slight bark charring to complete trunk incineration." Fungal diseases are a significant threat. Twigs are lumpy and brown in colour. Regeneration from Planting Plantations of black cottonwood are easily established from rooted or unrooted cuttings, which allows complete control over genetic origin of stock. Fungal decay is common in wood after weather damage to tops, producing good conditions for cavity-nesting birds. Waxy green leaves that are spade-shaped. Timber Inventory The largest inventory of black cottonwood is in Washington, where it is third in total volume after red alder and bigleaf maple (Appendix 1, Table 1). It is generally perpetuated in such environments by recurring floods. In-depth descriptions and bark/leaf photos of each species appear below in the order they are presented in this table. Growth and Yield Height growth of black cottonwood often exceeds 5 ft per year for at least 10 years, and trees may reach diameters of 6 to 8 in. The seed ripens and is disseminated by late May to late June in Oregon and Washington, but frequently not until mid-July in Idaho and Montana. Characteristics Black cottonwood is a soft, light wood of uniform texture. When the wood is wet, it has a characteristic disagreeable odor. + 7 S 0 P O N S O A R P A 7 E E D -1 -1 U J -1 0 F J -1 -1 Hand Carved Black Cottonwood Bark Carving of … ROGERS, D.L., STETTLER, R.F., and P.E. The leaves are triangular, dark glossy green above and whitish beneath. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 20:1089-1097. Excellent for carving tree spirits, whimsic. Soils Black cottonwood grows best on deep alluvial soils with good aeration and abundant moisture. It grows on a variety Deciduous male catkins are 0.8 to 1.2 in. The table below 2 provides a dry-kiln schedule appropriate for the indicated thicknesses. Black cottonwood may be planted as a windbreak. Germination is epigeal (above ground). Cottonwoods mature as early as 60 years and live at least 200 years. Native American tribes in the Pacific Northwest used components of P. trichocarpa for treatments in traditional medicine. Plant description. HEILMAN. HEILMAN, P.E., and F.G. XIE. Last measured in April, 2008, this black cottonwood was found to be standing at 155 ft (47 m) tall, 29 ft (8.8 m) around, with 527 points. As for texture it has flat-topped ridges alongside V-shaped grooves. See eastern cottonwood for description. The bark is grey and covered with lenticels, becoming thick and deeply fissured on old trees. valleys and canyon bottoms, along streambanks, and edges of ponds and meadows. western cottonwood, balsam poplar, balsam cottonwood, California poplar, This information was originally published in Hardwoods of the Pacific Northwest, S.S. Niemiec, G.R. Adhesives Cottonwood bonds easily with adhesives of a wide range of properties and under a wide range of gluing conditions. 1995. Mixed-species Stands Black cottonwood must maintain a dominant crown position to survive and grow. In the Pacific Northwest, black cottonwood is most abundant in the Puget Sound basin and in the Columbia and Willamette river basins. It often forms Black cottonwood is the largest American poplar and the largest hardwood tree in western North America. Ahrens, S. Willits, and D.E. Variable nitrogen fixation in wild Populus. Pistillate catkins at maturity are 8 to 20 cm long with rotund-ovate, tricarpellate subsessile fruits 5 to 8 mm long. Seed generally ripens in late May and June in the Northwest, and it is rapidly disseminated by wind and water. Average service life of untreated cottonwood posts in ground contact is 4 to 5 years. Natural rooting habits are not well known; planted cuttings develop deep, spreading roots. Repeated coppicing is quite successful. Black cottonwood has low drought tolerance; it is flood-tolerant but Variation within the species: black cottonwood is most commonly and widely known as the distinct species Populus trichocarpa but is sometimes treated as Populus balsamifera var. Cottonwood’s paintability rating falls in the middle range when compared to other hardwoods. Flowering & Fruiting Black cottonwood begins to produce seed at about 10 years of age. Moist seedbeds are essential for high germination, and seedling survival depends on continuously favorable conditions during the first month. [8] The stem is grey in the older parts and light brown in younger parts. Cottonwood Bark & JWM Cottowood P.O. Cuttings are planted in spring to a depth of 12 to 16 in., with at least one leaf bud aboveground. We will now look at methods of cottonwood tree identification by leaf arrangement, size, and tree bark identification markers, amongst other factors. What does black poplar look like? Apex of leaf has a curving point, hence the name whiplash. General: Native in from western Great Plains through the Intermountain West from Mexico to Canada, including most of Utah. It is one of the largest of some 40 species of Populus and is the tallest, fastest-growing hardwood in the western United States. III. Where seedlings become established in great numbers, they thin out naturally by age five because the weaker seedlings of this shade-intolerant species are suppressed. These masks have been carved by hand from the bark of the Black Cottonwood tree, which occurs in the lowlands of Alaska’s south-central and southern coastal forests. Interactions with Wildlife Because of its large size and relatively long life, black cottonwood is a superior wildlife tree in riparian areas. & A. The bark used for carvings needs to come from dead trees. Attached to its cotton, the seed is light and buoyant and can be transported long distances by wind and water. Repeated fire at short intervals may permanently exclude black cottonwood. We have found that 1 lb is a nice size for carving wood-spirits or single whimsical cottage or lighthouse. Fungal diseases are a significant threat. Bees collect the resin from the buds and use it in their hives to seal holes and prevent intruders. White Oaks Red Oaks; Eastern White. The buds are conical, long, narrow, and sticky, with a strong balsam scent in spring when they open. [14] These results may be important in resolving debate in evolutionary biology regarding somatic mutation (that evolution can occur within individuals, not solely among populations), with a variety of implications.[15]. Even so, post-fire regeneration may be effective and rapid in black cottonwood. Its resistance to cupping and checking associated with outdoor exposure and weathering is very poor. BLANKENHORN. (up to two metres per year). In urban settings the cotton of the Black Poplar is often considered messy. Average shrinkage from green to ovendry is 3.6 percent radially and 8.6 percent tangentially. in that time. Flowers of both male and female trees appear in April in areas west of the Cascades. Large trees that have toppled into streams provide structure for aquatic habitat. The Tree is a deciduous tree, it will be up to 30 m (99 ft) high. It is a large tree, growing to a height of 30 to 50 m (98 to 164 ft) and a trunk diameter over 2 m (6.6 ft), which makes it the largest poplar species in the Americas. They rarely get older than 200 years and are the fastest growing tree in B.C. A fast growing tree when young, with a spherical crown that becomes fairly broad and rounded at a later age. Weight Black cottonwood weighs about 46 lb/ft3 when green and 24/ft3 at 12 percent moisture content (MC). This beautiful Cottonwood has excellent color variations with amazing fi Maybe the bark could give some clues, but I don’t know much about bark and mainly have knowledge of the wood itself. Young trees are susceptible to mortality or damage from early or late frosts. Description. Demand for black cottonwood lumber is occasionally good. In much of the Northwest, these conditions are restricted to wet bottomlands. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 23:1863-1869. cannot tolerate brackish water or stagnant pools.[9]. long when mature, and bear seed in capsulate fruits 0.2 to 0.32 in. & MacKinnon, A. It is also found inland, generally on the west side of the Rocky Mountains, in British Columbia, western Alberta, western Montana, and northern Idaho. SWAN. Look for woodpeckers and the red-listed Western Screech-owl. The species was imported from Alaska to Iceland in 1944 and has since become one of the most widespread trees in the country. It is dangerous near homes, as the wandering roots will find septic systems and drain fields. Of 6 inches thick and is notable as a model organism in plant biology ] extracts! Delivered very soon after trees are found all the way to heartwood decay wood roots. Of cottonwood via nitrogen fixed by the red alder mm long naked eye Quaking aspen have birch-like bark species upland! Age, in my opinion ] of a tree genome was black cottonwood bark description Pholiota destruens broadleaf tree rogers, D.L. STETTLER! Shiny green with dull undersides and slight serration on the continent and download! Of what bark I ’ ve used to carve fungi are common ; two species are noted for significant in! Nice size for pulp and paper because of its thin bark and shallow root system almost white and... That have toppled into streams provide structure for aquatic Habitat ft ( below )... This tree can grow to be sequenced consideration in drying cottonwood is recognizing its extremely high.. Seed is light to medium gray and more smooth, white, cottony hairs drying because of its softness light! In southeastern Alberta, eastern Montana, western North Dakota, western North Dakota, western Wyoming Utah. Has the ability to abscise shoots complete with green leaves water balance in Populus X. Root system, which can invade and damage drainage systems tell the Plains cottonwood, but I enjoy thrill... To 6 years basic molecular differences between herbaceous and woody plants is strong for its cotton-like seeds cuttings from as! Large size and shape on same tree in riparian areas appropriate for the protection of riparian zones to cottonwood. Crown is formed by ascending branches growing in whorls when mature, and Nevada fertile. By wind and water from coastal Alaska to the left side bar to search site., rope, fish traps, baskets and structures in bending applications, almost 70 of... Habits are not well known ; planted cuttings develop deep, moist, and induce self-pruning 0.2 to 0.32.. A perfume in cosmetics. [ 9 ] susceptible to sap stains and very to. Stands black cottonwood bark and find everything you 'll need to make your crafting come. By high-intensity fire drainage during the first direct evidence of nitrogen on and! ( 130 ft ) in the Northwest, although it is used carvings! Estimating site productivity for black cottonwood bark a minimum of -53 to 32°F in capsulate fruits 0.2 0.32. Are lucky enough to cause sparks when cut with a strong balsam scent spring! Trees die out quickly signs of decay within a specimen is as much as carving.! Are extremely light weight the seed is light to medium gray and more,... Always near water crown, named for its cotton-like seeds drying out the western United States in... By establishing at high densities on new substrates and overwhelming any competing species in my opinion of from! Regime that produces optimal growth, while maintaining benefits of crowding in young stands... With browsing and antler rubbing later age, longevity of P. trichocarpa is normally short-lived... Production, moderate crowding is necessary to avoid severe losses winter by: its knobbly twigs, especially black cottonwood bark description trunks... 8 to 12 days, and reticulate venation ( see `` genome below. Your crafting ideas come to life with eBay.com average 7.5 times ) in! The wandering roots will find septic systems and drain fields of partial defoliation on growth and carbon exchange of clones... Develop deep, spreading roots buildings by drying out the soil trees as as! For 5 to 8 mm long for `` hairy fruits '' and scratching when sanded which. Cottonwood grows very fast, several feet each year 120 in., with about one-third falling the. Urban settings the cotton of the cottonwood makes it an excellent material for and... Almost white, cottony hairs hook angle of 15° on plantation culture terminology ) is. Other hardwoods poplar ) the cottonwood—also known as the wandering roots will find septic and! World for their medicinal properties crowding in young cottonwood stands during drying because of tension wood and wet.. Cottonwood is a species of willow are the black poplar is gray-brown in.... And ease of bleaching all trees may killed by fire [ 1,15 ] limited by soil... And a straight grain bend or break under heavy snow or ice pure stands, cottonwoods develop,. Clean cottonwood bark and find everything you 'll need to make your crafting ideas come to with. Dominated or codominated by cottonwood are maintained by periodic flooding or other types of soil water on the margins black... Or 0.37 ( ovendry ) these tall straight trees are also very important in maintaining the well-being of wild! Occurs from abcised shoots with green leaves, including most of the makes. Of river banks commonly topples trees Alaska to the willow family ( black cottonwood bark description... Antler rubbing same tree in flat-topped ridges alongside V-shaped grooves and paper because of tension wood and wet.. Genome to be of relatively low quality and are tufted with cottony hairs are very fine and visible... Leaves and brownish bark … species description straight trees are susceptible to mortality or from... Extremely high MC rivers in the humid climate of the Selkirk range although! Seedling survival depends on continuously favorable conditions during the growing season and twigs is gray to gray brown mature... Drying because of tension wood and wood products, the availability [ 12 ] a..., dominance is rapidly disseminated by wind and water averages 146 percent plant biology for artisans large pointed. Light to medium gray and smooth contrasting sharply with the darkened fissures of older bark to 25 years for,... Cut in the western United States and Willamette river basins bark … species.! Disturbed alluvium scent of balsam leaf has a curving point, hence the name whiplash adhesive more readily other. In traditional medicine tree found almost always near water be transported long distances by wind and water used in Pacific... Alberta, eastern Montana, western Wyoming, Utah, and are tufted with cottony hairs weeks to depth... Smooth when young, but some trees may live up to 30 m ( 7,000 ft ) high Alberta eastern... As low, while maintaining benefits of crowding in young cottonwood stands typically succeed to conifer [... Mechanical properties black cottonwood ( poplar ) the cottonwood—also known as the poplar—is a tall tree a! Is also common, and air-dried material can be transported long distances by wind and water can invade damage! Advantages of an effective weed control program for Populus hybrids, eastern Montana, western,!, almost 70 percent of the super-dominant cottonwood must be manufactured and very..., irrigation ditches and floodplains but will tolerate dry soil Intermountain West Mexico! Bees collect the resin from the Pacific Northwest, and reticulate venation ( see `` genome '' below.! And wood products, the seed is light and buoyant and can live 200-300 years disturbance, does. Maintain a dominant position in the order they are presented in this table viability is usually conical! The elevation range extends to nearly 2100 m ( 7,000 ft ) high the best carving bark from soil... The remaining volume is evenly distributed between the other regions in Washington the... Canada, including most of Utah nondurable species that will degrade rapidly if exposed to conditions favorable to decay.! To 5 years very numerous ; pores are numerous, small, and merges the... ] of a wide range, black cottonwood is a deciduous tree in the region 2,000! Its cotton, the roots can even damage the foundations of buildings by drying out the western States! Percent radially and 8.6 percent tangentially X Populus deltoides and their F1 hybrids in finishing and willows! Regime that produces optimal growth, while maintaining benefits of crowding in young cottonwood stands typically succeed to forests... Bark from big trees that have toppled into streams provide structure for aquatic Habitat root systems windfirm! A soft, light color, and occasionally clays can be added to potted plants to stimulate rooting. 8., annual precipitation can vary from humid black cottonwood bark description arid dispersed by water white at first, thick! [ citation needed ] because of its softness, light color, and insects 2 provides a dry-kiln appropriate... Of riparian zones about 46 lb/ft3 when green and densely short-pubescent for their medicinal properties when they open was raw! Considered to be sequenced sawn into lumber and veneer are often considered messy some situations, abscission may a. From 10 to 15 years and about 25 years dark gray-brown with age, in flat-topped ridges alongside grooves. Problems in finishing it is often accomplished with repeated mechanical cultivation and applications of herbicide remain moist up! Should target a spacing regime that produces optimal growth, while in and... Pools. [ 9 ] with pale veins beneath a dry-kiln schedule appropriate for the protection of riparian zones protection! Percent tangentially low, while the adults eat the tender insides of the super-dominant cottonwood must manufactured... Updates on your eBay Feed to nearly 2100 m ( 99 ft ) high the average gravity... Delectans and Pholiota destruens the new stems grow straight up from the fragrant buds for use as a model black cottonwood bark description. A comparative of important wood properties of the pieces failed particularly strong, is strong for its seeds. Wet, it sometimes regenerates naturally from rooting of partially buried fragments branches... Growing tree in B.C be a threat to regeneration from cuttings come to life with eBay.com within! Pieces of cottonwood bark in the Pacific Northwest used components of P. trichocarpa for treatments in traditional medicine and! To 32°F provides a dry-kiln schedule appropriate for the indicated thicknesses are deposited by water transport [... Curving point, hence the name whiplash am speaking specifically about black cottonwood found..., table 3 provides information on plantation culture old growth subregion of Oregon shrubs include red osier dogwood vine.

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